Archaeoastronomy and Ancient Technologies 2018, 6(1), 64-79
Geological observations on archeoastronomical objects of the ridge Sunduki and mount Tarping (Khakasia)
Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SO RAN, Novosibirsk, Russia;
In autumn of 2016, the author participated in the Second Russian seminar on the field of archeoastronomy, which took place in the tract of the Sunduki (Khakasia) and was dedicated to the memory of the famous scientist-archaeologist and orientalist V. E. Larichev. For many years he conducted archaeological and archaeoastronomical research in this area. A lot of specialists were involved in surveying, performed the necessary measurements and observations. At the same time, such a multifaceted object as Sunduki was "deprived" of the attention of geologists for more than 30 years. And at first, this place is a natural, geological object. The author of this work tried to fill this gap. Several routes were conducted, including first of all the most famous archeoastronomical objects studied by V. Larichev and his colleagues. In the course of geological researches on the place of archeoastronomical objects the elements of rock occurrence in rock massifs were determined, since the structural features of rock mass structure largely determine the development of subsequent processes of weathering. Much attention was paid to the measurements of the direction of tectonic cracks development, which allowed establishing a common system of fracturing of the Sunduki ridge, its block structure. On such archaeological objects as the "Equinox window" and mount Tarping (Saratsky Sunduk), it was tectonics that played a key role in the creation of geometric shapes that might be interesting to the ancient men who used this objects as visors in the observation of celestial bodies. The development of exogenous, slope processes contributed to the creation of the object "Stele of the second canyon, installed on the line of the heavenly Meridian." The processes of intensive denudation of the rock crest led to the creation of the object "Three inclined plates". In the course of its study, the parameters and mutual arrangement of red Sandstone slabs were measured in detail, their angles and azimuths of incidence were determined. Studies clearly indicate the natural process of weathering and destruction of rocks of this block. The study of the lithological composition of the thickness and the nature of the rocks allowed to explain the presence of the so-called gutters at the object "Protochrams of sunrise during the summer solstice": gutters represent the boundary of the division of rocks, with different physical and mechanical properties. At this border an intense destruction of rocks happen and at least it leads to the negative microform surface of the rocky ridge. As a result of this geological studies of the Sunduki and on mount Tarping, determined by researchers as having archaeological significance, the author made the conclusion that these objects have a natural origin, associated either with the peculiarities of occurrence of rocks in certain places, or with the processes of destruction of the rock surface as a result of weathering. However, the presence of quite a large number of rock remains and individual blocks and slabs of sandstones differently oriented and located on the slopes and on the watersheds, gave an advantage to the ancient man in his decision to use this landscape as an astronomical tool for his tasks, sacred or purely practical.
Keywords: geoglyph, geoglyphs of Turgay, Turgay deflection Ushtogai square, Urpek ritual complex, Great Ashuty cross, Small Ashuty cross
Full Text: Download pdf (Russian)
Astronomicheskie metody issledovaniy arkheoastronomicheskikh ob"ektov gornoy gryady "Sunduki" i drugikh istoricheskikh ob"ektov: materialy Vserossiyskogo polevogo seminara : poselok Belyy Iyus, 21 - 25 sentyabrya 2016 g. [Astronomical methods of research of archeoastronomical objects of the mountain range "Sunduki" and other historical objects: materials of the All-Russian field workshop: Belyi Iyus settlement, September 21 - 25, 2016]. - Novosibirsk: NPI NSU, 2017.
Larichev, V.E.; Giyenko, E.G.; Sheptunov, G.S.; Serkin, G.F.; Komissarov, V.V. Luna na nebesnom meridiane (k probleme otslezhivaniya sezonov, mnogoletnikh lunno- solnechnykh tsiklov, predskazaniya zatmeniy i predstavleniy o mirozdanii v kul'turakh paleometalla Severnoy Khakasii). [Moon on the celestial meridian (to the problem of tracing seasons, long-term lunar-solar cycles, predicting eclipses and ideas about the universe in paleometal cultures of Northern Khakassia)]. Problemy arkheologii, etnografii i antropologii Sibiri i sopredel'nykh territoriy. Materialy Godovoy sessii in-ta arkheologii i etnografii SO RAN, 2004 g. T. X, chast' 1. [Problems of Archeology, Ethnography and Anthropology of Siberia and Adjacent Territories. Materials of the Annual Session of the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the SB RAS, 2004. T. X, part 1]. - Novosibirsk: Publishing House of the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the SB RAS, 2004. - P. 335-343.
Larichev, V.E.; Giyenko, E.G.; Parshikov, S.A.; Prokopyeva, S.A.; Serkin, G.F. "Sunduki" - velikiy sakral'nyy tsentr Severnoy Khakasii (mifologicheskoe, eposnoe i estestvennonauchnoe v kul'tovykh pamyatnikakh drevnikh kul'tur yuga Sibiri, sovmeshchennykh s tvoreniyami prirody). ["Chests" - the great sacred center of Northern Khakassia (mythological, epic and natural science in the religious monuments of the ancient cultures of the south of Siberia, combined with the creations of nature)]. Astroarkheologiya - estestvenno-nauchnyy instrument poznaniya protonauk i astral'nykh religiy zhrechestva drevnikh kul'tur Khakasii. Sbornik nauchnykh statey. [Astroarcheology is a natural scientific tool of cognition of proto-sciences and astral religions of the priesthood of the ancient cultures of Khakassia. Collection of scientific articles]. - Krasnoyarsk: Publishing house "City", 2009. - P. 75-91.
Larichev, V.E.; Giyenko, E.G.; Parshikov, S.A. Nablyudatel'naya astronomiya i sistemy schisleniya vremeni bronzovogo veka Severnoy Khakasii (k probleme astral'nogo kharaktera religii zhrechestva okunevskoy kul'tury). [Observational astronomy and the system of calculating the time of the Bronze Age of Northern Khakassia (to the problem of the astral nature of the religion of the priesthood of Okunev culture)]. Mirovozzrenie naseleniya Yuzhnoy Sibiri i Tsentral'noy Azii v istoricheskoy retrospektive. [The outlook of the population of Southern Siberia and Central Asia in historical retrospect]. Issue 6. - Barnaul: Publishing house of the Altai State University, 2013. - P. 120-146.
Larichev, V.E.; Parshikov, S.A. Zurvan i porozhdeniya ego - bliznetsy-antagonisty v kompozitsii na skale okrestnostey vary "Saratskiy Sunduk" (opyt rekonstruktsii kosmogonii i kosmologii zhrechestva okunevskoy kul'tury i problema vzaimootnosheniy zoroastrizma i zurvanizma). [Zurvan and its creations are twin antagonists in composition on the cliff of vicinities of Vara "Saratsky Chest" (experience of reconstruction of cosmogony and cosmology of the priesthood of Okunev culture and the problem of Zoroastrianism and Zurvanism)]. Mirovozzrenie naseleniya Yuzhnoy Sibiri i Tsentral'noy Azii v istoricheskoy retrospektive. [Worldview of the population of Southern Siberia and Central Asia in historical retrospect]. Issue 7. - Barnaul, Publishing house of the Altai State University, 2014. - P. 140-179.
Negoda, I.V. Geologicheskme faktory nekotorykh arkheoastronomicheskikh ob"ektov urochishcha Sunduki (Khakasiya). [Geological factors of some archeoastronomical objects of the natural zone of Sunduka (Khakassia)]. Astronomicheskie metody issledovaniy arkheoastronomicheskikh ob"ektov gornoy gryady "Sunduki" i drugikh istoricheskikh ob"ektov: materialy Vserossiyskogo polevogo seminara : poselok Belyy Iyus, 21 - 25 sentyabrya 2016 g. [Astronomical methods of research of archeoastronomical objects of the Sunduka mountain range and other historical objects: materials of the All-Russian field seminar: Belyi Iyus settlement, September 21 - 25, 2016]. - Novosibirsk: NPI NSU, 2017 - P. 48-65.