Archaeoastronomy and Ancient Technologies 2018, 6(1), 30-63
Ritual complexes ("geoglifs") of the Turgay Deflection (preliminary message)
Logvin, A.V.1; Shevnina, I.V.; Seitov, A.M.; Neteta, A.V.
1Archaeological laboratory, Kostanay State University, Kostanay, Republic of Kazakhstan;
Turgay deflection, the territory is contoured from the west by the spurs of the South Ural Mountains, from the east by the Kazakh Uplands and the spurs of the Ulutau Mountains, merges with the West Siberian Lowland in the north, and goes to the Shalkar-Teniz Basin in the south. The term "geoglyph" is a pattern created in a relief way on the ground. This concept was used to describe the giant patterns, lines and geometric figures known as the Nazca geoglyphs of South America. In connection with the absence in the archeology of the Eurasian steppes, analogous to the Turgay sites, the authors used the term "geoglyph" to refer to the huge man-made geometric figures of Turgay. As the data accumulated, the authors came to the conclusion that the term "geoglyph" does not reflect the essence of Turgay objects and their functional purpose, and can only be used for these objects conditionally, therefore the term "geometric earthworks". For the first time information about objects that later received the name "Torgay's geoglyphs" was obtained at the general meeting of the Orenburg Academic Archive Commission in 1909 in the report of B.A. Skalova, whose report is given in the work of IA. Castanje "Antiquities of the Kirghiz steppe and the Orenburg region." In the future, these objects did not attract the proper attention of researchers, the situation has changed at the present time when aero and space images have become widely available. As a result of the study of space images available in the Google Earth program, in 2007, D. Dey found a number of geometric objects consisting of barrow-shaped mounds. Employees of the archaeological laboratory of Kostanay State University and Turgay Archaeological Expedition carried out work on the detection and fixation of this type of monuments. In total for the period 2007-2016. Found during the study of space images, 84 "geoglyphs" of which 61 objects were visited and fixed. The objects under consideration are relatively compact within the Turgay deflection at high points and have large (32-680 m) dimensions and geometric shapes. Monuments are built of: kurgan-like embankments (59) and shafts (2). "Geoglyphs", built of shafts, are represented by one type - "swastika". In the group of "geoglyphs", built from kurgan-like embankments in shape, the following are distinguished: "line", "cross", "square", "ring". Archaeological excavations were undertaken on one of the embankments of the Ushtogai square (2007) and the Small Ashutasty Cross (2013). In addition, a geophysical method. A review of the analogies given by OSL and AMS analyzes make it possible to include Turgai's "geoglyphs" as ritual-sacral objects that existed between the epoch of the final bronze and the first centuries of our era. At the moment, there is no reason to use such a term as "geoglyph", since it does not reflect the essence of Turgai objects and their functional purpose. In our opinion, it would be more accurate to call these objects ritual complexes, since, most likely they belong to the sacred sphere of man.
Keywords: geoglyph, geoglyphs of Turgay, Turgay deflection Ushtogai square, Urpek ritual complex, Great Ashuty cross, Small Ashuty cross
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